|Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (May 21, 1844 – September 2, 1910) was a French Post-Impressionist painter in the Naïve or Primitive manner. He was also known as Le Douanier (the customs officer), a humorous description of his occupation as a toll collector. Ridiculed during his life, he came to be recognized as a self-taught genius whose works are of high artistic quality.|
Henri Rousseau was born in Laval, France in the Loire Valley into the family of a tinsmith. He attended Laval High School as a day student and then as a boarder, after his father became a debtor and his parents had to leave the town upon the seizure of their house. He was mediocre in some subjects at the high school but won prizes for drawing and music. He worked for a lawyer and studied law, but "attempted a small perjury and sought refuge in the army," serving for four years, starting in 1863. With his father's death, Rousseau moved to Paris in 1868 to support his widowed mother as a government employee. In 1868, he married Clémence Boitard, his landlord's 15 year-old daughter, with whom he had six children (only one survived). In 1871, he was appointed as a collector of the octroi tax on goods entering Paris. His wife died in 1888 and he married Josephine Noury in 1898. He started painting seriously in his early forties, and by age 49 he retired from his job to work on his art full time.
Rousseau claimed he had "no teacher other than nature", although he admitted he had received "some advice" from two established Academic painters, Félix Auguste Clément and Jean-Léon Gérôme. Essentially he was self-taught and is considered to be a naïve or primitive painter.
His best known paintings depict jungle scenes, even though he never left France or saw a jungle. Stories spread by admirers that his army service included the French expeditionary force to Mexico are unfounded. His inspiration came from illustrated books and the botanical gardens in Paris, as well as tableaux of taxidermied wild animals. He had also met soldiers, during his term of service, who had survived the French expedition to Mexico and listened to their stories of the subtropical country they had encountered. To the critic Arsène Alexandre, he described his frequent visits to the Jardin des Plantes: "When I go into the glass houses and I see the strange plants of exotic lands, it seems to me that I enter into a dream."
Along with his exotic scenes there was a concurrent output of smaller topographical images of the city and its suburbs.
He claimed to have invented a new genre of portrait landscape, which he achieved by starting a painting with a view such as a favourite part of the city, and then depicting a person in the foreground.
Rousseau's flat, seemingly childish style was disparaged by many critics; people often were shocked by his work or ridiculed it. His ingenuousness was extreme, and he always aspired, in vain, to conventional acceptance. Many observers commented that he painted like a child, but the work shows sophistication with his particular technique.
From 1886, he exhibited regularly in the Salon des Indépendants, and, although his work was not placed prominently, it drew an increasing following over the years. Tiger in a Tropical Storm (Surprised!) was exhibited in 1891, and Rousseau received his first serious review, when the young artist Félix Vallotton wrote: "His tiger surprising its prey ought not to be missed; it's the alpha and omega of painting." Yet it was more than a decade before Rousseau returned to depicting his vision of jungles.
In 1893, Rousseau moved to a studio in Montparnasse where he lived and worked until his death in 1910. During 1897, he produced one of his most famous paintings, La Bohémienne endormie (The Sleeping Gypsy).
During 1905, a large jungle scene The Hungry Lion Throws Itself on the Antelope was exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants near works by younger leading avant-garde artists such as Henri Matisse in what is now seen as the first showing of The Fauves. Rousseau's painting may even have influenced the naming of the Fauves.
In 1907, he was commissioned by artist Robert Delaunay's mother, Berthe, Comtesse de Delaunay, to paint The Snake Charmer.
When Pablo Picasso happened upon a painting by Rousseau being sold on the street as a canvas to be painted over, the younger artist instantly recognised Rousseau's genius and went to meet him. In 1908 Picasso held a half serious, half burlesque banquet in his studio in Le Bateau-Lavoir in Rousseau's honour.
After Rousseau's retirement in 1893, he supplemented his small pension with part-time jobs and work such as playing a violin in the streets. He also worked briefly at Le petit journal, where he produced a number of its covers.
Rousseau exhibited his final painting, The Dream, at the 1910 Salon des Independants a few months before his death on 2 September 1910 in the Hospital Necker in Paris. At his funeral, seven friends stood at his grave in the Cimetière de Bagneux: the painters Paul Signac and Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, the artist couple Robert Delaunay and Sonia Terk, the sculptor Brâncusi, Rousseau's landlord Armand Queval and Guillaume Apollinaire.
ousseau's work exerted an "extensive influence ... on several generations of vanguard artists, starting with Picasso and including Jean Hugo, Léger, Beckmann and the Surrealists," according to Roberta Smith, an art critic writing in The New York Times. "Beckmann’s amazing self-portraits, for example, descend from the brusque, concentrated forms of Rousseau’s portrait of the writer Pierre Loti".
The visual style of Michel Ocelot's 1998 animation film Kirikou and the Sorceress is partly inspired by Rousseau, particularly the depiction of the jungle vegetation.
Critics have noted the influence of Rousseau on Wallace Stevens's poetry. See for instance Stevens's Floral Decorations for Bananas in the collection Harmonium.
One of his works was used to be an inspiration for the animated film Madagascar.
The song The Jungle Line by Joni Mitchell is based upon a Rousseau painting.
Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (21 mai 1844 - Septembre 2, 1910) était un Français peintre post-impressionniste dans la manière naïve ou primitive. Il était aussi connu comme Le Douanier (l'agent des douanes), une description humoristique de sa profession comme un péager. Ridiculisé au cours de sa vie, il en vint à être reconnu comme un génie autodida...|
Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (21. Mai 1844 - 2. September 1910) war ein Französisch Post-Impressionist Maler in der naiv oder primitiv. Er wurde auch als der Zöllner (der Zöllner), eine humorvolle Beschreibung seiner Tätigkeit als Zöllner bekannt. Lächerlich gemacht in seinem Leben, kam er als Autodidakt Genie, dessen Werke sind von hoher künstleris...|
Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (21 maggio 1844 - 2 settembre 1910) è stato un francese post-impressionista pittore in maniera ingenua o primitiva. Era anche conosciuto come Doganiere (il doganiere), una descrizione umoristica della sua professione come un esattore. Ridicolizzato durante la sua vita, egli è venuto per essere riconosciuto come un genio ...|
Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (21 mayo 1844 hasta 2 septiembre 1910) fue un francés post-impresionista pintor en la manera ingenua o primitiva. él también era conocido como el Aduanero (el oficial de aduanas), una descripción humorística de su ocupación como un cobrador de peaje. Ridiculizado durante toda su vida, llegó a ser reconocido como un genio...|
Анри Жюльен Феликс Руссо (21 мая 1844 - 2 сентября 1910), французский пост-импрессионистов художник в наивной или примитивной манере. Он был также известен как Le Douanier (таможенник), юмористическое описание своего занятия на платной коллектора. Смешные при его жизни, он прибыл, чтобы быть признанным-самоучка гений, чьи работы отличаются высоким ...|
亨利· 朱利安· 费利克斯· 卢梭（1844年5月21日 - 1910年9月2日）是法国后印象派画家在幼稚或原始的方式。他也被称为乐Douanier（海关人员），作为一个收费员的幽默描述了他的职业。在他生命的嘲笑，他后来被作为一个自学成才的天才，其作品具有很高的艺术质量的认可。 锡匠的家庭在法国拉瓦尔，亨利卢梭出生于卢瓦尔河谷。他参加了一天的学生，然后作为一个边境拉瓦尔高中后，他的父亲成为债务人和他的父母不得不离开后，扣押了他们的房子镇。他在高中部分科目平平，但赢得了绘画和音乐奖。他的律师和法律研究工作，但“小伪证企图在军队寻求避难”，担任了四年，于1863年开始。随着父亲的去世，卢梭在1868年移居巴黎，作为政府雇员，以支持他的寡母。 1868年，他娶了...|
Henri-Julien-Félix Rousseau (21 de Maio de 1844, Laval – 2 de Setembro de 1910, Paris), conhecido também pelo público como o douanier (aduaneiro) por ter trabalhado como inspector de alfândega, foi um pintor francês inserido no movimento moderno do pós-impressionismo. A sua obra foi pouco apreciada pelo público geral e pelos críticos seus contempor...|
Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (21 de maio, 1844 - 2 de setembro de 1910) foi um pintor pós-impressionista francês da maneira ingênua ou primitiva. Ele também era conhecido como Le Douanier (da alfândega), uma descrição bem-humorado de sua ocupação como um arrecadador de impostos. Ridicularizado durante sua vida, ele passou a ser reconhecido como um g...|
アンリ· ジュリアン· フェリックス· ルソー（1844年5月21日 - 1910年9月2日）は、ナイーブまたはプリミティブな方法でフランスのポスト印象派の画家であった。彼はまた、ル· 税関吏（税関）、トール· コレクターとしての彼の職業のユーモラスな説明として知られていました。彼の人生の間に嘲笑し、彼はその作品の高い芸術性である独学の天才として認識されるようになりました。 アンリ· ルソーは、ブリキ職人の家族にロワール渓谷Laval、フランスで生まれました。彼の父が債務者となり、彼の両親は彼らの家の発作時に町を離れる必要があった後、彼は、今日の学生として、そしてボーダーとしてラバルの高等学校に通った。彼は高校でいくつか...||