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"The Alba Madonna", Oil by Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio Da Urbino) (1483-1520, Italy)

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'The Alba Madonna', Oil by Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio Da Urbino) (1483-1520, Italy)
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"The Alba Madonna"

Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio Da Urbino) - Oil

The Alba Madonna is an oil transferred from wood to canvas painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael, depicting Mary, Jesus and John the Baptist, in a typical Italian countryside. John the Baptist is holding up a cross to Jesus, which the baby Jesus is grasping. All three figures are staring at the cross. The three figures are grouped to the left in the round design, but the outstretched arm of the Madonna and the billowing material of her cloak balance the image. During its time in the Hermitage, the painting would be transferred from a circular panel to a square canvas during the early nineteenth century. Through analysis of the painting, it was determined that the original panel was severely splitting down the center and on the right side. The canvas pattern is visible in the painting and the landscape on the far right was damaged in the transfer process. It is housed in the National Gallery of Art of Washington, D.C., United States.



 
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 Raphael
Raphael is another of those enigmatic Renaissance painters that only needs a first name to know who one talking about. If Michelangelo or Leonardo is brought up in conversation as if speaking about an old friend, we know that it is the Italian Renaissance Masters that are being spoken about. The same is true of Raphael, who is sometimes given a back seat to the two giants, but is no less of an artist. Whereas Leonardo Da Vinci’s works can be painted in mostly dark tones, Raphael’s are light, bright and airy.

Italian in full RAFFAELLO SANZIO (b. April 6, 1483, Urbino, Duchy of Urbino --d. April 6, 1520, Rome, Papal States ), master painter and architect of the Italian High Renaissance. Raphael is best known for his Madonnas and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican in Rome. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.


Influences on Raphael

After the complexities of Leonardo and Michelangelo, it is a relief to find Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio, 1483-1520), a genius no less than they, but one whose daily ways were those of other men. He was born in the small town of Urbino, an artistic centre, and received his earliest training from his father. Later, his father sent him to Pietro Perugino (active 1478-1523) who, like Verrocchio and Ghirlandaio, was an artist of considerable gifts. But while Leonardo and Michelangelo quickly outgrew their teachers and show no later trace of influence, Raphael had a precocious talent right from the beginning and was an innate absorber of influences. Whatever he saw, he took possession of, always growing by what was taught to him. An early Raphael can look like a Perugino. In fact, Perugino's Crucifixion with the Virgin, St John, St Jerome, and St Mary Magdalene was thought to be by Raphael until evidence proved it was given to the church of San Gimigniano in 1497, when Raphael was only 14. It is undoubtedly a Perugino, calmly emotional, and pious rather than passionate. A fascinating context for this scene of quiet faith is the notorious unbelief on the part of the artist, who was described by Vasari as an atheist. He painted what would be acceptable, not what he felt to be true, and this may account for the lack of real emotive impact.

 

Early Raphael

There are still echoes of the gentle Perugino in an early Raphael like the diminutive St George and the Dragon, painted when he was in his early twenties; the little praying princess is very Peruginesque. But there is a fire in the knight and his intelligent horse, and a nasty vigour in the convincing dragon that would always be beyond Perugino's skill. Even the horse's tail is electric, and the saint's mantle flies wide as he speeds to the kill.


Raphael spent his first sojourn in Florence (1504-08) to sublime purpose. At that time Leonardo and Michelangelo were both working there, and as a result Raphael adopted new working methods and techniques--particularly influenced by Leonardo--and his paintings took on a more vigorous graphic energy. We may think we see a hint of what he took from Leonardo in a work like the Small Cowper Madonna, with its softness of contour and perfection of balance. Both faces, the Virgin's almost smiling, almost praying, wholly wrapped up in her Child, and that of the Child, wholly at ease with His Mother, dreamily looking out at us with abstracted sweetness, have that inwardness we see in Leonardo, but made firm and unproblematic. Behind the seated figures we see a tranquil rural landscape with a church perched on a hill.


Raphael's later work

Raphael returned to the subject of the Madonna and Child several times, each time in an intimate, gentle composition. The Alba Madonna, on the other hand, has a Michelangelic heroism about it; tender as always in Raphael, but also heavy; masses wonderfully composed in tondo form; a crescendo of emotion that finds its fulfilment in the watchful face of Mary. The world stretches away on either side, centered on this trinity of figures, and the movement sweeps graciously onwards until it reaches the furthest fold of Mary's cloaked elbow. Then it floods back, with her bodily inclination towards the left, and the meaning is perfectly contained: love is never stationary, it is given and returned.

Raphael's life was short, but while he lived he was one of those geniuses who continually evolve and develop. He had an extraordinary capacity (like, though greater than, Picasso's) to respond to every movement in the art world, and to subsume it within his own work.


Since Vasari described the picture commissioned by Bindo Altoviti as ``his portrait when young'', historians have liked to think that this radiant youth was Raphael himself. He was indeed said to be unusually handsome, pensive, and fair, which is exactly what this portrait shows to us. But it is now agreed that it is Bindo when young, and since he was at this time a mere 22 (and Raphael 33, with only five years left to him), this is not an ``imagined'' youth but the real boy who takes up so self-conscious a stance before the painter.

Raphael is one of the most acute of all portraitists, effortlessly cleaving through the external defences of his sitter, yet courteously colluding with whatever image the ego would seek to have portrayed. This duality, looking beneath the surface and yet remaining wholly respectful of the surface, gives an additional layer of meaning to all his portraits. We see, and we know things that we do not see; we are helped to encounter rather than to evaluate.

Bindo Altoviti was beautiful, successful (as a banker), and rich: rather like Raphael himself. There may have been some feeling of fellowship in the work, as the noble countenance is sensitively fleshed out for us. Half the face is in shadow, as if to allow the sitter his mystery, his maturing, his private destiny. The lips are full and sensual, balanced by the deep-set eyes with their confrontational stare, almost defiant. The ruffled shirt is half-covered by the young man's locks, calculatedly casual, at odds in their dandyish profusion with the plain beret and the rich but simple doublet. He holds a darkened hand dramatically to his breast, maybe to show off the ring, maybe to indicate psychic ease.

But Raphael has not given him the real world for his setting. Bindo Aldoviti stands in a nowhere place of luminous green, outside the scope of time in his eternal youth, fearless because he is protected by art from human incertainties.

There is an aptness in the areas of darkness in which the great doublet sleeve loses itself. For all his debonaire poise, this is a young man threatened. For the viewer who knows how short Raphael's own life was to be, the thought that this might be a self-portrait is seductively plausible. There is a sense in which every portrait is one of the self, since we never escape our own life enough to see with divine vision what is objectively there: this shows us both men, painter and banker, ``when young''.

Raphael is out of favour today; his work seems too perfect, too faultless for our slipshod age. Yet these great icons of human beauty can never fail to stir us: his Vatican murals can stand fearlessly beside the Sistine ceiling. The School of Athens, for example, monumentally immortalizing the great philosophers, is unrivalled in its classic grace. Raphael's huge influence on successive artists is all the more impressive considering his short life.

Raffaello Sanzio, plus connu sous le nom de Raphaël (Raffaello), (né le 6 avril 1483 à Urbin - mort le 6 avril 1520 à Rome) est un peintre et architecte italien de la Renaissance. Il est aussi appelé Raffaello Santi, Raffaello da Urbino, Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino. Biographie Raffaello Sanzio ou Santi, dit Raphaël, peintre italien de la Haute Renai...
Peu d'artistes ont autant écrit sur leur art que Delacroix. Il ya bien sûr son Journal qui révèle l'énergie qu'il mit jusqu'à la fin, à approfondir sa connaissance des grands maîtres, mais il a également publié dans les grandes revues parisiennes une série de textes sur Raphaël, Michel-Ange, Poussin, Puget et certains de ses contemporains, Gros, Ch...
Raffael, auch Raffael da Urbino, Raffaello Santi [rafːaˈɛlːo ˈsanti], Raffaello Sanzio [ˈsantsi̯o] oder Raphael (* 6. April oder 28. März 1483 in Urbino † 6. April 1520 in Rom) war ein italienischer Maler und Architekt der Hochrenaissance. Raffael erlangte vor allem als Maler für seine harmonischen und ausgewogenen Kompositionen und lieblichen Mad...
Raffaello Sanzio (Urbino, 28 marzo o 6 aprile 1483 – Roma, 6 aprile 1520) è stato un pittore e architetto italiano, tra i più celebri del Rinascimento italiano. Raffaello nacque a Urbino «l'anno 1483, in venerdì santo, alle tre di notte, d'un Giovanni de' Santi, "Pittore non meno eccellente, ma sì bene uomo di buono ingegno, e atto a indirizzare i ...
Рафаэ́ль Са́нти (итал. Raffaello Santi, Raffaello Sanzio, Rafael, Raffael da Urbino, Rafaelo 28 марта 1483 — 6 апреля 1520) — великий итальянский живописец, график и архитектор, представитель умбрийской школы. Сын живописца Джованни Санти прошёл первоначальную художественную выучку в Урбино у своего отца Джованни Санти, но уже в юном возрасте оказ...
Raffaello Sanzio (Urbino, 6 de abril de 1483 – Roma, 7 de abril de 1520 ), también conocido como Rafael de Urbino o, simplemente, como Rafael [n. 1] fue un pintor y arquitecto italiano del Alto Renacimiento. Además de su labor pictórica, que sería admirada e imitada durante siglos, realizó importantes aportes en la arquitectura y, como inspector de...
拉斐爾·聖齊奧(意大利语:Raffaello Sanzio,1483年4月6日-1520年4月6日),本名拉斐爾·桑蒂(Raffaello Santi),常简称拉斐尔(拉丁语:Raphael),意大利画家、建築師。與李奧納多·達文西和米開朗基羅合稱「文藝復興藝術三杰」。拉斐爾所繪畫的畫以「秀美」著稱,畫作中的人物清秀,场景祥和。 他的著名宗教畫聖母系列將宗教的虔誠和非宗教的美貌有機地融為一體;他的畫即使是《聖喬治大戰惡龍》的场面看起來也是平靜安詳的。他為梵蒂岡教宗居室創作的大型壁畫《雅典學院》是經典之作,他將柏拉圖和亞里斯多德,將基督教和異教,統統融合在一起,創造出和諧的场面。同时也創作出許多著名的肖像如:「教皇利奥十世像」。他的性情平和、文雅,和他的畫作一样。拉斐爾於1520年高燒猝逝於羅...
Rafael Sanzio (em italiano Raffaello Sanzio Urbino, 6 de abril de 1483 — Roma, 6 de abril de 1520), frequentemente referido apenas como Rafael, foi um mestre da pintura e da arquitetura da escola de Florença durante o Renascimento italiano, celebrado pela perfeição e suavidade de suas obras. Também é conhecido por Raffaello Sanzio, Raffaello Santi...
ラファエロ・サンティ(伊: Raffaello Santi、 1483年4月6日 - 1520年4月6日)は、盛期ルネサンスを代表するイタリアの画家、建築家。一般的には単にラファエロと呼ばれ、日本ではラファエッロ、ラファエルロ、ラファエルなどという表記ゆれが見られる。ラファエロの作品はその明確さと分かりやすい構成とともに、雄大な人間性を謳う新プラトン主義を美術作品に昇華したとして高く評価されており、レオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチ、ミケランジェロとともに、盛期ルネサンスの三大巨匠といわれている。 。 ラファエロは異例なほどに大規模な工房を経営しており、37歳という若さで死去したとは考えられないほどに多数の作品を制作した。多くの作品がヴァチカン市国のヴァチカン宮殿に残されており、とくに「ラファエロの間...

 

 

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"The Alba Madonna", Oil by Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio Da Urbino) (1483-1520, Italy)
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The Alba Madonna is an oil transferred from wood to canvas painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael, depicting Mary, Jesus and John the Baptist, in a typical Italian countryside. John the Baptist is holding up a cross to Jesus, which the baby Jesus is grasping. All three figures are staring at the cross. The three figures are grouped to the left in the round design, but the outstretched arm of the Madonna and the billowing material of her cloak balance the image. During its time in the Hermitage, the painting would be transferred from a circular panel to a square canvas during the early nineteenth century. Through analysis of the painting, it was determined that the original panel was severely splitting down the center and on the right side. The canvas pattern is visible in the painting and the landscape on the far right was damaged in the transfer process. It is housed in the National Gallery of Art of Washington, D.C., United States.
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio Da Urbino)
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Oil
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