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The Nude Maja (La Maja Desnuda), Oil by Francisco De Goya (1746-1828, Spain)

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Painting Copy Fine Art The Nude Maja , Painting Copy Fine Art The Nude Maja
The Nude Maja (La Maja Desnuda), Oil by Francisco De Goya (1746-1828, Spain)
Painting Copy Fine Art The Nude Maja , Painting Copy Fine Art The Nude Maja

"The Nude Maja (La Maja Desnuda)"

Francisco De Goya - Oil

La maja desnuda (known in English as The Naked (or Nude) Maja) is an oil on canvas painting by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya (1746–1828), portraying a nude woman reclining on a bed of pillows. It was executed some time between 1797 and 1800, and is sometimes said to be the first clear depiction of female pubic hair in a large Western painting. The painting has been in the Museo del Prado in Madrid since 1910.



 
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 Francisco de Goya
Francisco de Goya was a prominent artist from Spain during the 1700s. He was the court painter of King Charles III of Spain. Besides the many paintings he did, Goya also was a master print maker, producing many long series of prints in his lifetime and chronicled history as well. His lifetime marked a shift in art world. Painters and other artists were beginning to leave behind the legacy of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. New artistic forms and styles were popping up throughout the world. Goya was special though at once being considered the last great Old Master, a term used for many of the prominent, influential Renaissance artists throughout Europe, but also as the first modern painter. No matter what category Goya is grouped with his art remains a fantastic treat for all who see it.
[Page - Francisco De Goya - 4Ko]
 Francisco José de Goya Biography
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (March 30, 1746 – April 16, 1828) was an Aragonese Spanish painter and printmaker. Goya was a court painter to the Spanish Crown and a chronicler of history. He has been regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and as the first of the moderns. The subversive and subjective element in his art, as well as his bold handling of paint, provided a model for the work of later generations of artists, notably Manet and Picasso.
[Page - Francisco De Goya - 9Ko]

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and as the first of the moderns. Goya was a court painter to the Spanish Crown and a chronicler of history. The subversive and subjective element in his art, as well as his bold handling of paint, provided a model for the work of later generations of artists, notably Manet and Picasso.

Youth


Goya was born in Fuendetodos, Aragón, Spain, in 1746 to José Benito de Goya y Franque and Gracia de Lucientes y Salvador. He spent his childhood in Fuendetodos, where his family lived in a house bearing the family crest of his mother. His father earned his living as a gilder. About 1749, the family bought a house in the city of Zaragoza and some years later moved into it. Goya attended school at Escuelas Pias, where he formed a close friendship with Martin Zapater, and their correspondence over the years became valuable material for biographies of Goya. At age 14, he entered apprenticeship with the painter José Luzán.

He later moved to Madrid where he studied with Anton Raphael Mengs, a painter who was popular with Spanish royalty. He clashed with his master, and his examinations were unsatisfactory. Goya submitted entries for the Royal Academy of Fine Art in 1763 and 1766, but was denied entrance.

He then journeyed to Rome, where in 1771 he won second prize in a painting competition organized by the City of Parma. Later that year, he returned to Zaragoza and painted a part of the cupola of the Basilica of the Pillar, frescoes of the oratory of the cloisters of Aula Dei, and the frescoes of the Sobradiel Palace. He studied with Francisco Bayeu y Subías and his painting began to show signs of the delicate tonalities for which he became famous.

The Third of May 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas, 266 ? 345 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Maturity and success

Goya married Bayeu's sister Josefa on July 25, 1773. His marriage to Josefa (he nicknamed her "Pepa"), and Francisco Bayeu's membership of the Royal Academy of Fine Art (from the year 1765) helped him to procure work with the Royal Tapestry Workshop. There, over the course of five years, he designed some 42 patterns, many of which were used to decorate (and insulate) the bare stone walls of El Escorial and the Palacio Real del Pardo, the newly built residences of the Spanish monarchs. This brought his artistic talents to the attention of the Spanish monarchs who later would give him access to the royal court. He also painted a canvas for the altar of the Church of San Francisco El Grande, which led to his appointment as a member of the Royal Academy of Fine Art.
In 1783, the Count of Floridablanca, a favorite of King Carlos III, commissioned him to paint his portrait. He also became friends with Crown Prince Don Luis, and lived in his house. His circle of patrons grew to include the Duke and Duchess of Osuna, whom he painted, the King and other notable people of the kingdom.

After the death of Charles III in 1788 and revolution in France in 1789, during the reign of Charles IV, Goya reached his peak of popularity with royalty.
Charles IV of Spain and His Family, 1800. Théophile Gautier described the figures as looking like "the corner baker and his wife after they won the lottery".

Painter of royalty

In 1786, Goya was appointed painter to Charles III, and in 1789 was made court painter to Charles IV. In 1799 he was appointed First Court Painter with a salary of 50,000 reales and 500 ducats for a coach. He worked on the cupola of the Hermitage of San Antonio de la Florida; he painted the King and the Queen, royal family pictures, portraits of the Prince of the Peace and many other nobles. His portraits are notable for their disinclination to flatter, and in the case of Charles IV of Spain and His Family, the lack of visual diplomacy is remarkable.

Goya received orders from many friends within the Spanish nobility. Among those from whom he procured portrait commissions were Pedro Téllez-Girón, 9th Duke of Osuna and his wife María Josefa Pimentel, 12th Countess-Duchess of Benavente, María del Pilar de Silva, 13th Duchess of Alba (universally known simply as the "Duchess of Alba"), and her husband José María Álvarez de Toledo, 15th Duke of Medina Sidonia, and María Ana de Pontejos y Sandoval, Marchioness of Pontejos.

Caprichos
Main article: Caprichos

After contracting cholera and a high fever in 1792, Goya was left deaf, and he became withdrawn and introspective. During the five years he spent recuperating, he read a great deal about the French Revolution and its philosophy. The bitter series of aquatinted etchings that resulted were published in 1799 under the title Caprichos. The dark visions depicted in these prints are partly explained by his caption, "The sleep of reason produces monsters". Yet these are not solely bleak in nature and demonstrate the artist's sharp satirical wit, particularly evident in etchings such as Hunting for Teeth. Additionally, one can discern a thread of the macabre running through Goya's work, even in his earlier tapestry cartoons.
It is also of note that in 1798, he painted luminous and airy scenes for the pendentives and cupula of the Real Ermita (Chapel) of San Antonio de la Florida in Madrid. Many place miracles of Saint Anthony of Padua in the midst of contemporary Madrid.
Later years
Saturn Devouring His Son, 1819. The title, like all those given to the Black Paintings, was assigned by others after Goya's death.As French forces invaded Spain during the Peninsular War (1808–1814), the new Spanish court received him as had its predecessors.

When Josefa died in 1812, Goya was painting The Charge of the Mamelukes and The Third of May 1808, and preparing the series of prints known as The Disasters of War (Los desastres de la guerra).

King Ferdinand VII came back to Spain but relations with Goya were not cordial. In 1814, Goya was living with his housekeeper Doña Leocadia and her illegitimate daughter, Rosario Weiss; the young woman studied painting with Goya, who may have been her father. (His wife had died in 1812). He continued to work incessantly on portraits, pictures of Santa Justa and Santa Rufina, lithographs, pictures of bullfighting, and more. With the idea of isolating himself, he bought a house near Manzanares, which was known as the Quinta del Sordo (roughly, "House of the Deaf Man", titled after its previous owner and not Goya himself). There he made the Black Paintings.

Goya left Spain in May 1824 for Bordeaux, where he settled, and Paris. He returned to Spain in 1826, but, despite a warm welcome, he returned in ill health to Bordeaux, where he died in 1828 at the age of 82.

Works

Goya painted the Spanish royal family, which included Charles IV of Spain and Ferdinand VII. His themes range from merry festivals for tapestry, draft cartoons, to scenes of war and corpses. This evolution reflects the darkening of his temper. Modern physicians suspect that the lead in his pigments poisoned him and caused his deafness since 1792. Near the end of his life, he became reclusive and produced frightening and obscure paintings of insanity, madness, and fantasy. The style of these Black Paintings prefigure the expressionist movement. He often painted himself into the foreground.

The Maja
The Nude Maja, ca. 1800.


The Clothed Maja, ca. 1803.Two of Goya's best known paintings are The Nude Maja (La maja desnuda) and The Clothed Maja (La maja vestida). They depict the same woman in the same pose, naked and clothed, respectively. He painted La maja vestida after outrage in Spanish society over the previous Desnuda. Without a pretense to allegorical or mythological meaning, the painting was "the first totally profane life-size female nude in Western art". He refused to paint clothes on her, and instead created a new painting.

The identity of the Majas are uncertain. The most popularly cited subjects are the Duchess of Alba, with whom Goya is thought to have had an affair, and the mistress of Manuel de Godoy, who subsequently owned the paintings. Neither theory has been verified, and it remains as likely that the paintings represent an idealized composite. In 1808 all Godoy's property was seized by Ferdinand VII after his fall from power and exile, and in 1813 the Inquisition confiscated both works as 'obscene', returning them in 1836.

Darker realms

In a period of convalescence during 1793–1794, Goya completed a set of eleven small pictures painted on tin; the pictures known as Fantasy and Invention mark a significant change in his art. These paintings no longer represent the world of popular carnival, but rather a dark, dramatic realm of fantasy and nightmare. Courtyard with Lunatics is a horrifying and imaginary vision of loneliness, fear and social alienation, a departure from the rather more superficial treatment of mental illness in the works of earlier artists such as Hogarth. In this painting, the ground, sealed by masonry blocks and iron gate, is occupied by patients and a single warden. The patients are variously staring, sitting, posturing, wrestling, grimacing or disciplining themselves. The top of the picture vanishes with sunlight, emphasizing the nightmarish scene below.

This picture can be read as an indictment of the widespread punitive treatment of the insane, who were confined with criminals, put in iron manacles, and subjected to physical punishment. And this intention is to be taken into consideration since one of the essential goals of the enlightenment was to reform the prisons and asylums, a subject common in the writings of Voltaire and others. The condemnation of brutality towards prisoners (whether they were criminals or insane) was the subject of many of Goya’s later paintings.

As he completed this painting, Goya was himself undergoing a physical and mental breakdown. It was a few weeks after the French declaration of war on Spain, and Goya’s illness was developing. A contemporary reported, “the noises in his head and deafness aren’t improving, yet his vision is much better and he is back in control of his balance.” His symptoms may indicate a prolonged viral encephalitis or possibly a series of miniature strokes resulting from high blood pressure and affecting hearing and balance centers in the brain. The triad of tinnitus, episodes of imbalance and progressive deafness is also typical of Ménière's disease. Other postmortem diagnostic assessment points toward paranoid dementia due to unknown brain trauma (perhaps due to the unknown illness which he reported). If this is the case, from here on - we see an insidious assault of his faculties, manifesting as paranoid features in his paintings, culminating in his black paintings and especially Saturn Devouring His Sons.

In 1799 Goya published a series of 80 prints titled Caprichos depicting what he called
“ ...the innumerable foibles and follies to be found in any civilized society, and from the common prejudices and deceitful practices which custom, ignorance, or self-interest have made usual.”

In The Third of May, 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid, Goya attempted to "perpetuate by the means of his brush the most notable and heroic actions of our glorious insurrection against the Tyrant of Europe" The painting does not show an incident that Goya witnessed; rather it was meant as more abstract commentary.

Black Paintings and The Disasters

In later life Goya bought a house, called Quinta del Sordo ("Deaf Man's House"), and painted many unusual paintings on canvas and on the walls, including references to witchcraft and war. One of these is the famous work Saturn Devouring His Sons (known informally in some circles as Devoration or Saturn Eats His Child), which displays a Greco-Roman mythological scene of the god Saturn consuming a child, possibly a reference to Spain's ongoing civil conflicts. Moreover, the painting has been seen as "the most essential to our understanding of the human condition in modern times, just as Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling is essential to understanding the tenor of the 16th century".

What more can one do?, from The Disasters of War, 1812-15.This painting is one of 14 in a series known as the Black Paintings. After his death the wall paintings were transferred to canvas and remain some of the best examples of the later period of Goya's life when, deafened and driven half-mad by what was probably an encephalitis of some kind, he decided to free himself from painterly strictures of the time and paint whatever nightmarish visions came to him. Many of these works are in the Prado museum in Madrid.

In the 1810s, Goya created a set of aquatint prints titled The Disasters of War which depict scenes from the Peninsular War. The scenes are singularly disturbing, sometimes macabre in their depiction of battlefield horror, and represent an outraged conscience in the face of death and destruction. The prints were not published until 1863, 35 years after Goya's death.

Questions of authenticity

Remembrance plaque for Goya in BordeauxThe findings of research published since 2003 have raised questions regarding the authenticity of some of Goya's late works. One study claims that the Black Paintings were applied to walls that did not exist in Goya's home before he left for France. In 2008 the Prado Museum reverted the traditional attribution of The Colossus, and expressed doubts over the authenticity of three other paintings attributed to Goya as well. On January 27, 2009, the Prado announced they had come to the conclusion that The Colossus was painted by one of Goya's apprentices and even bore the signature of the painter. Doubts over its authenticity began in 1992 when the painting was cleaned and the curators of the museum noticed that the technique was much poorer than Goya's other masterpieces.

Cinema, drama and opera

A statue of Francisco Goya outside the side entrance of The Prado Museum in MadridEnrique Granados composed a piano suite (1911) and later an opera (1916), both called Goyescas, inspired by the artist's paintings. Gian Carlo Menotti wrote a biographical opera about him titled Goya (1986), commissioned by Plácido Domingo, who created the role; this production has been presented on television. Goya also inspired Michael Nyman's opera Facing Goya (2000). Goya is the central character in Clive Barker's play Colossus (1995) and in Antonio Buero Vallejo's play El sueño de la razón ("The Sleep of Reason") (1970).

Several films portray Goya's life. These include a short film, Goya (1948), The Naked Maja (1958), Goya, Historia de una Soledad (1971), Goya in Bordeaux (1999), Volavérunt (1999), Goya : Awakened in a Dream (1999), and Goya's Ghosts (2006).

In 1988 American musical theatre composer Maury Yeston released a studio cast album of his own musical, Goya: A Life In Song, in which Plácido Domingo again starred as Goya.

[Biography - Francisco De Goya - 17Ko]
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes, né à Fuendetodos, près de Saragosse, le 30 mars 1746 et mort à Bordeaux le 16 avril 1828, est un peintre et graveur espagnol. Biographie Formation et premières commandes (années 1760-1775) Né en 1746 à Fuendetodos, près de Saragosse, Francisco de Goya était le fils de Gracia Lucientes (&dagger 1785) et de José d...
[Biography - Francisco De Goya - 14Ko]
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes, né à Fuendetodos, près de Saragosse, le 30 mars 1746 et mort à Bordeaux 16 avril 1828, est un peintre et graveur espagnol. Francisco de Goya était le fils de Gracia Lucientes ( 1785) et de José de Goya ( 1781), maître doreur à Saragosse, où il était employé par les chanoines de la célèbre basilique du Pilar, alor...
[Page - Francisco De Goya - 15Ko]
Francisco de Goya (* 30. März 1746 in Fuendetodos, Aragón (Spanien) &dagger 16. April 1828 in Bordeaux vollständiger Name Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes) war ein spanischer Maler und Grafiker. Leben und Werk Die Familie Karls IV, 1800-01, Museo del PradoFrancisco de Goya war der Sohn des angesehenen Vergolders José de Goya (&dagger 1781) un...
[Biography - Francisco De Goya - 9Ko]
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 marzo 1746 - 16 aprile 1828) è stato un pittore e incisore spagnolo considerato sia come l'ultimo degli antichi maestri e come il primo dei moderni. Goya è stato un pittore di corte per la Corona spagnola e un cronista della storia. L'elemento sovversivo e soggettivo nella sua arte, così come la sua gestione a...
[Biography - Francisco De Goya - 18Ko]
Франсиско Хосе де Гойя у Lucientes (30 марта 1746 - 16 апреля 1828) был испанский художник и гравер рассматривать и как последний из старых мастеров, и как первый из современных шрифтов. Гойя был придворным художником испанской короны и летописец истории. Подрывных и субъективный элемент в своем искусстве, а также его смелое обращение с краской, мо...
[Biography - Francisco de Goya - 1Ko]
弗朗西斯科· 何塞· 戈雅,ÿLucientes(1746年3月30日 - 16年4月1828年)是西班牙画家和版画家认为作为最后的老船长,作为现代人的第一。 戈雅是宫廷画家,西班牙王室和历史的编年史。 在他的艺术的颠覆和主观元素,以及他大胆的油漆处理,提供了一个模型,为后世的艺术家,尤其是马奈,毕加索的作品。 青年 戈雅出生,在Fuendetodos,阿拉贡,西班牙在1746年何塞· 贝尼托· 戈雅ÿFranque和格拉西亚的Lucientesÿ萨尔瓦多。 他度过了他的童年,他的家人住在一个​​印有他母亲的家徽的房子在Fuendetodos。 他的父亲赢得了他作为一个吉尔德生活。 关于1749年,家庭买在萨拉戈萨市的一所房子,几年后,把它搬到...
[Biography - Francisco De Goya - 24Ko]
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 de março de 1746 - 16 Abril 1828) foi um pintor e gravurista espanhol considerado tanto como o último dos antigos mestres e como o primeiro dos modernos. Goya foi um pintor da corte para a Coroa espanhola e um cronista da história. O elemento subversivo e subjetiva em sua arte, bem como a sua manipulação em ne...
[Biography - Francisco De Goya - 19Ko]
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 de março de 1746 - 16 Abril 1828) foi um pintor espanhol e printmaker considerado tanto como o último dos antigos mestres e como o primeiro dos modernos. Goya foi um pintor da corte para a Coroa espanhola e um cronista da história. O elemento subversivo e subjetiva em sua arte, bem como sua manipulação ousada ...
[Biography - Francisco De Goya - 19Ko]
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 de março de 1746 - 16 Abril 1828) foi um pintor espanhol e printmaker considerado tanto como o último dos antigos mestres e como o primeiro dos modernos. Goya foi um pintor da corte para a Coroa espanhola e um cronista da história. O elemento subversivo e subjetiva em sua arte, bem como sua manipulação ousada ...
[Biography - Francisco De Goya - 19Ko]
フランシスコホセデゴヤイルシエンテス(1746年3月30日 - 1828年4月16日)はスペインの画家と版画家の巨匠の最後として、また現代人の最初のように両方考え。ゴヤは、スペインのクラウンと歴史の記録者に宮廷画家だった。破壊と彼の芸術の主観的な要素だけでなく、塗料の彼の大胆な処理は、特に芸術家、マネ、ピカソの後の世代の仕事のためのモデルを用意。 ユース ゴヤは、1746年にホセベニートデゴFranqueとグラシアデシエンテスYエルサルバドルにFuendetodos、アラゴン、スペインで生まれた。彼は彼の家族は、母親の家紋が付いた家に住んでいたFuendetodos、彼の幼年期を過ごした。彼の父は、金箔師として生計を獲得した。 1749年について、家族はサラゴサの街で家を買い、数年後にそこに...
[Biography - Francisco de Goya - 1Ko]

 

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The Nude Maja (La Maja Desnuda), Oil by Francisco De Goya (1746-1828, Spain)
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La maja desnuda (known in English as The Naked (or Nude) Maja) is an oil on canvas painting by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya (1746–1828), portraying a nude woman reclining on a bed of pillows. It was executed some time between 1797 and 1800, and is sometimes said to be the first clear depiction of female pubic hair in a large Western painting. The painting has been in the Museo del Prado in Madrid since 1910.
Francisco De Goya
Oil
Oil
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