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Bathory at Pskov, Oil On Canvas by Jan Matejko (1838-1893, Poland)

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Framed Giclee Fine Art Jan Matejko , Oil Painting Fine Art Jan Matejko
Bathory at Pskov, Oil On Canvas by Jan Matejko (1838-1893, Poland)
Framed Print Fine Art Jan Matejko , Framed Giclee Fine Art Jan Matejko

"Bathory at Pskov"

Jan Matejko - Oil On Canvas - 322 x 512 cm - 1872 - (Nicolaus Copernicus Museum (Frombork, Poland))

During the Livonian War (1578-1582), between Ivan the Terrible of Russia and Stefan Batory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the city was besieged by the Polish and Lithuanian forces. The joined army failed to capture the city, but forced Russia to return other territories and gained Livonia. The siege was the setting of this painting. The siege of Pskov from the Polish perspective: Batory at Pskov, 1579. Painting by Jan Matejko in 1872. Matejko's allegoric painting illustrates the concept of romantic nationalism: the Muscovites are represented doing homage to the Polish king, which appear victorious, although in reality Pskov never fell to the Poles, as the conflict ended with negotiations before the siege was concluded.



 
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Jan Matejko ( Polish pronunciation (help·info)) (also known as Jan Mateyko; June 24, 1838 – November 1, 1893) was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events. His most famous works include oil on canvas paintings like Battle of Grunwald, paintings of numerous other battles and court scenes, and a gallery of Polish kings. He is counted among the most famous Polish painters.

Matejko born on June 24, 1838 in the Free City of Kraków. His father, Franciszek Ksawery Matejko (Czech: František Xaver Matějka) (born 1789 or 13 January 1793, died 26 October 1860), a Czech from the village of Roudnice, was a graduate of the Hradec Králové school; who later became a tutor and music teacher. He first worked for the Wodzicki family in Kościelniki, Poland, then moved to Kraków, where he married the half-German, half-Polish Joanna Karolina Rossberg. Jan was the ninth child from eleven that his parents had. After the death of his mother in 1846, Jan and his siblings were taken care of by his aunt, Anna Zamojska.

From his earliest days Matejko showed exceptional artistic talent that allowed him to advance from grade to grade, although he had great difficulty with other subjects. He never mastered a foreign language and did not do well even with his native Polish. As a result, the public appearances he was obliged to make all his life must have been difficult for him.

At a young age he witnessed the Kraków revolution of 1846 and the 1848 siege of Kraków by the Austrians, the two events which ended the existence of the Free City of Kraków. His two older brothers served in them under General Józef Bem, one died and the other was forced into exile.

He attended St. Ann's High School, which he dropped out of in 1851 because of poor results. Despite that and because of his exceptional talent he studied at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków from 1852 to 1858. His teachers included Wojciech Korneli Stattler and Władysław Łuszczkiewicz. During this time, he began exhibiting historical paintings at the Society of Friends of the Fine Arts there (see e.g. Sigismund I Bestowing Nobility on the Professors of the University of Kraków in 1535.). After studying under the historical painter Hermann Anschütz in Munich (1859) and then briefly and less successfully in Vienna, Matejko returned to Kraków. It would be however years before he would gain commercial success; for a time he was the proverbial "starving artist", who celebrated when he sold a canvass (Tsars Szujscy) for five gulden.

During the January Uprising of 1863 in which he did not participate because of poor health, Matejko gave financial support and transported arms to the insurgents' camp in Goszcza). In 1864 he married Teodora Giebultowska, with whom he had four children: Beata, Helena, Tadeusz, and Jerzy. In the same year he became a member of the Scientific Society in Kraków. Tadeusz, his first son, was a painter who studied under his father's supervision. Helena, his daughter, also an artist, was a patriot who helped victims in World War I and was awarded the Cross of Independence by president Stanisław Wojciechowski.

At that time Matejko started to gain international recognition; literally a starving artist during his younger days. In 1865 Matejko's painting "Skarga's Sermon" was awarded a gold medal at the yearly Paris salon; soon afterwards Count Maurycy Potocki bought it for 10,000 guldens. In 1868, his painting "Rejtan" was awarded a gold medal at the World Exhibition in Paris. Critics listed Matejko as one of the most important European historical painters. From the Polish perspective, he succeeded in propagating Polish history, and reminding the world about Poland which, while partitioned and without any independent political representation, still commanded the hearts of many.

Beginning in 1873, he was for many years the principal of the Academy of Fine Arts.

Matejko died in Kraków on November 1, 1893. He was buried in the center of the Alley of the Meritorious at Kraków's Rakowicki Cemetery.

In 1860 Matejko issued an illustrated album, Ubiory w Polsce (Clothing in Poland), a project reflecting his intense interest in historical records of all kinds and his desire to promote such interest among the Polish people in an effort to intensify their patriotic feelings. In 1861 he had an exhibition Otrucie królowej Bony (Poisoning of Queen Bona) in Warsaw's Zachęta. The national defeats forced him to abandon the Christian religious painting which, he believed, was his vocation and to devote himself almost exclusively to historical painting. In fact he created a vision of Polish history from which we can not liberate ourselves despite of perennial criticism of the scientists. Matejko often placed on his paintings people who were not present at this location (f.ex. Hugo Kołłątaj, and General Józef Wodzicki, on The Battle of Racławice). He was not interested in presenting factual events but in representation of a historical-philosophical synthesis. Matejko's work has to be viewed not only in artistic terms, but also in terms of the social function it performed and continues to perform today. He considered history as a function of the present and the future. His paintings are not historical illustrations, rather they are powerful expressions of the artist's psyche and his attitude to the world.

Matejko was focusing on major themes in Polish history and using historical sources to paint events in minute historical detail. He created two groups of historical paintings. The earlier one starting with the painting Stańczyk (1862) was directed against the magnates whose lack of patriotism caused, in his opinion, the fall of Poland. Stanczyk, the court jester to King Sigismund I (1437–1548), to whom Matejko gave his own features. The jester is presented as a symbol of the nation's conscience: he sits glumly in a chair apart from the other figures, alone in seeing that events during the wars against Moscow would ultimately end in tragedy. This group of paintings included among others also Kazanie Skargi (Sermon of Piotr Skarga) (1864) and Reytan (1866).

The second group, painted after the defeat of January Uprising, is dedicated to famous events in Polish history. Matejko depicted many major events and battles in Polish history. His most famous work is Bitwa pod Grunwaldem (Battle of Grunwald) (1878) depicting the 1410 Polish and Lithuanian victory over the Teutonic Knights; a painting showing "clearly nationalist endeavour" which garnered it international acclaim as "an unrivaled icon of Polish nationalism". Other paintings in this group include Unia Lubelska (Union of Lublin) (1869), Stefan Batory pod Pskowem (Stefan Batory at the siege of Pskov) (1872), Kopernik (Nicolaus Copernicus), Dzwon Zygmunta (Sigismund's Bell) (1874), Hołd Pruski (Prussian Tribute) (1882), Sobieski pod Wiedniem (Jan III Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna) (1883), Wernyhora, Kościuszko pod Racławicami (Tadeusz Kościuszko at the battle of Racławice) (1888), Dzieje Cywilizacji w Polsce (History of civilization in Poland) (1889) and Konstytucja 3 Maja (Constitution of the 3 May) (1891). From 1890 to 1892 he also painted all of the Polish kings compiled in his book Portraits of Polish Kings (1890); his dedication to detail is evident in that he attended the opening of Queen Jadwiga's sarcophagus in 1887 to make sketches of her skull.

In addition to historical events Matejko made also several portraits. Among others: Żona w sukni ślubnej ("Wife in the wedding dress") (1879), A. Potocki (1879), S. Tarnowski (1890), Autoportret (1892). Altogether Matejko authored 320 oil paintings and several thousands drawings and watercolors. Finally he painted a monumental polychrome in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków (1889–1891). His most important paintings were hidden during World War II (Bitwa pod Grunwaldem was buried in Lublin). After 1945 majority of his works was found and subject to restoration. They are now mainly in Warsaw's National Museum (Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie). His works, disseminated in thousands of reproductions, have made him one of the most famous painters in Poland, and became almost standard illustrations of many key events in Polish history.

His more prominent students included Maurycy Gottlieb, Jacek Malczewski, Józef Mehoffer, Witold Pruszkowski, Leon Wyczółkowski, Stanisław Wyspiański, Ephraim Moses Lilien, Antoni Piotrowski.

Below is the list of Matejko's most famous works, in a chronological order.

[Biography - Jan Matejko - 9Ko]
Jan Matejko (né le 28 juin 1838 à Cracovie et mort le 1er novembre 1893 dans la même ville) est un peintre polonais. Considéré comme le plus grand peintre historique polonais de tous les temps, il est célèbre pour ses œuvres représentant les grands personnages et événements de l'histoire de la Pologne, comme la bataille de Grunwald. Son père, Franc...
[Biography - Jan Matejko - 3Ko]
Jan Alojzy Matejko (* 28. Juli oder 24. Juni 1838 in Krakau † 1. November 1893 ebenda) war ein polnischer Maler patriotischer Historiengemälde. Er gilt als der bedeutendste Historienmaler Polens. Jan Matejko wurde als neuntes von elf Kindern geboren. Seine Mutter verstarb früh und so hatte sein älterer Bruder Franciszek großen Einfluss auf seine E...
[Biography - Jan Matejko - 8Ko]
Jan Matejko, o Jan Mateyko (Cracovia, 24 giugno 1838 – Cracovia, 1º novembre 1893), è stato un pittore polacco. È famoso per le sue opere raffiguranti personaggi storici e scene di battaglia, come ad esempio la battaglia di Grunwald. Fu il destinatario di uno dei biglietti della follia di Friedrich Nietzsche. Studiò dal 1852 al 1858 alla Scuola di ...
[Biography - Jan Matejko - 3Ko]
Jan Matejko (28 de junio de 1838 - 1 de noviembre de 1893, Cracovia) fue un pintor polaco. Considerado como el mayor pintor histórico polaco de todos los tiempos, es célebre por sus obras en que representa los grandes personajes y acontecimientos de la historia polaca, como por ejemplo la Batalla de Grünwald. Su padre, Franciszek Ksawery Matejko, e...
[Biography - Jan Matejko - 3Ko]
Ян Алои́зий Мате́йко (польск. Jan Alojzy Matejko 24 июня 1838, Краков — 1 ноября 1893, Краков) — польский живописец, автор батальных и исторических полотен. Был девятым ребёнком в семье, в которой всего было одиннадцать детей. В детстве пережил обстрел Кракова австрийской армией (1848). Учился в Школе изящных искусств в Кракове (1852—1858), Академ...
[Biography - Jan Matejko - 2Ko]
扬·马特伊科(Jan Matejko ,也被称为Jan Mateyko;1838年6月24日—1893年11月1日)是一位波兰画家,以其描绘波兰史上著名政治与军事事件的画作而著称。 他最著名的画作包括《格伦瓦德之战》一类的帆布油画、关于很多其他战役以及贵族庭院景色的画作、还包括波兰历代国王的肖像画集。他被列为最著名波兰画家之一。 马特伊科出生于1838年6月24日的克拉科夫自由市。 他父亲弗兰齐谢克·克萨韦雷·马特伊科(波兰语:Franciszek Ksawery Matejko,捷克语:František Xaver Matějka)(1789年或1793年1月13日—1860年10月26日)是来自罗迪采的捷克人,他毕业于赫拉德茨-克拉洛韦学校;后来成为一名家庭教师与音乐教师。 他起初受科...
[Biography - Jan Matejko - 4Ko]
Jan Matejko (28 de junho de 1838, Cidade Livre de Cracóvia - 1 de novembro de 1893, Cracóvia) foi um pintor polonês. Considerado o maior pintor histórico polonês de todos os tempos, tornou-se famoso por retratar personalidades e eventos históricos. Entre seus quadros mais notáveis estão a Batalha de Grunwald, numerosas cenas históricas e uma galeri...
[Biography - Jan Matejko - 4Ko]
ヤン・マテイコ (Jan Matejko、Jan Mateykoとも。1838年6月24日 - 1893年11月1日)は、ポーランドの画家。ポーランド史に残る政治・軍事の出来事を主題にしたことで知られる 。 彼の最も有名な作品群には、油彩の『グルンヴァルトの戦い 』のような多くの戦闘や、宮廷の光景を描いた作品、歴代ポーランド国王の肖像などが含まれる。 ポーランド分割のさなか、オーストリアによって併合されていたポーランド領の一部自由都市クラクフで、マテイコは生まれた。父フランチシェク(Franciszek Ksawery Matejko)はフラデツ・クラーロヴェーにルーツを持つ、カトリックのチェコ人だった。フランチシェクは家庭教師として働き、最初はKościelnikiのWodzicki家の元...
[Biography - Jan Matejko - 5Ko]

 

 

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A-8XYB3L----EN-
Bathory at Pskov, Oil On Canvas by Jan Matejko (1838-1893, Poland)
/Art.nsf/O/8XYB3L/$File/Jan-Matejko-Bathory-at-Pskov.JPG
During the Livonian War (1578-1582), between Ivan the Terrible of Russia and Stefan Batory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the city was besieged by the Polish and Lithuanian forces. The joined army failed to capture the city, but forced Russia to return other territories and gained Livonia. The siege was the setting of this painting. The siege of Pskov from the Polish perspective: Batory at Pskov, 1579. Painting by Jan Matejko in 1872. Matejko's allegoric painting illustrates the concept of romantic nationalism: the Muscovites are represented doing homage to the Polish king, which appear victorious, although in reality Pskov never fell to the Poles, as the conflict ended with negotiations before the siege was concluded.
Jan Matejko
Oil On Canvas
Oil On Canvas
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