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Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia Von Harden, Oil by Otto Dix (1891-1969, Germany)

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Framed Giclee Fine Art Otto Dix , Oil Painting Fine Art Otto Dix
Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia Von Harden, Oil by Otto Dix (1891-1969, Germany)
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"Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia Von Harden"

Otto Dix - Oil - 89 x 121 cm - 1926 - (Musée National d'Art Moderne (Paris, France))

A prototypical Neue Sachlichkeit portrait by German painter Otto Dix (1891-1969) depicting the journalist Sylvia von Harden, a habitue of Berlin's famed Romanisches Cafe. Dix's critical realism verges on a caricature of the Neue Frau in the Weimar Era, while his style of oil painting and attention to physical details serve to heighten the character's individuality in this fascinating image.

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Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (German pronunciation: [ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈhaɪnʁiç ˈɔto ˈdɪks]; 2 December 1891 – 25 July 1969) was a German painter and printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of Weimar society and the brutality of war. Along with George Grosz, he is widely considered one of the most important artists of the Neue Sachlichkeit.

Otto Dix was born in Untermhaus, Germany, now a part of the city of Gera. The eldest son of Franz and Louise Dix, an iron foundry worker and a seamstress who had written poetry in her youth, he was exposed to art from an early age. The hours he spent in the studio of his cousin, Fritz Amann, who was a painter, were decisive in forming young Otto's ambition to be an artist; he received additional encouragement from his primary school teacher. Between 1906 and 1910, he served an apprenticeship with painter Carl Senff, and began painting his first landscapes. In 1910, he entered the Kunstgewerbeschule in Dresden (Academy of Applied Arts), where Richard Guhr was among his teachers.

When the First World War erupted, Dix enthusiastically volunteered for the German Army. He was assigned to a field artillery regiment in Dresden. In the autumn of 1915 he was assigned as a non-commissioned officer of a machine-gun unit in the Western front and took part in the Battle of the Somme. In November 1917, his unit was transferred to the Eastern front until the end of hostilities with Russia, and in February 1918 he was stationed in Flanders. Back in the western front, he fought in the German Spring offensive. He earned the Iron Cross (second class) and reached the rank of vizefeldwebel. In August of that year he was wounded in the neck, and shortly after he took pilot training lessons. He was discharged of service in December 1918.

Dix was profoundly affected by the sights of the war, and would later describe a recurring nightmare in which he crawled through destroyed houses. He represented his traumatic experiences in many subsequent works, including a portfolio of fifty etchings called Der Krieg, published in 1924.

At the end of 1918 Dix returned to Gera, but the next year he moved to Dresden, where he studied at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste. He became a founder of the Dresden Secession group in 1919, during a period when his work was passing through an expressionist phase. In 1920 he met George Grosz and, influenced by Dada, began incorporating collage elements into his works, some of which he exhibited in the first Dada Fair in Berlin. He also participated in the German Expressionists exhibition in Darmstadt that year.

In 1924 he joined the Berlin Secession; by this time he was developing an increasingly realistic style of painting that used thin glazes of oil paint over a tempera underpainting, in the manner of the old masters. His 1923 painting The Trench, which depicted dismembered and decomposed bodies of soldiers after a battle, caused such a furor, the Wallraf-Richartz Museum hid the painting behind a curtain. In 1925 the then-mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer, cancelled the purchase of the painting and forced the director of the museum to resign.

Dix was a contributor to the Neue Sachlichkeit exhibition in Mannheim in 1925, which featured works by George Grosz, Max Beckmann, Heinrich Maria Davringhausen, Karl Hubbuch, Rudolf Schlichter, Georg Scholz and many others. Dix's work, like that of Grosz—his friend and fellow veteran—was extremely critical of contemporary German society and often dwelled on the act of Lustmord, or sexual murder. He drew attention to the bleaker side of life, unsparingly depicting prostitution, violence, old age and death.

In one of his few statements, published in 1927, Dix declared, "The object is primary and the form is shaped by the object."

Among his most famous paintings are the triptych Metropolis (1928), a scornful portrayal of depraved actions of Germany's Weimar Republic, where nonstop revelry was a way to deal with the wartime defeat and financial catastrophe, and the startling Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden (1926). His depictions of legless and disfigured veterans—a common sight on Berlin's streets in the 1920s—unveil the ugly side of war and illustrate their forgotten status within contemporary German society, a concept also developed in Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front.

When the Nazis came to power in Germany, they regarded Dix as a degenerate artist and had him sacked from his post as an art teacher at the Dresden Academy. He later moved to Lake Constance in the southwest of Germany. Dix's paintings The Trench and War cripples were exhibited in the state-sponsored Munich 1937 exhibition of degenerate art, Entartete Kunst. They were later burned.

Dix, like all other practicing artists, was forced to join the Nazi government's Reich Chamber of Fine Arts (Reichskammer der bildenden Kuenste), a subdivision of Goebbels' Cultural Ministry (Reichskulturkammer). Membership was mandatory for all artists in the Reich. Dix had to promise to paint only inoffensive landscapes. He still painted an occasional allegorical painting that criticized Nazi ideals.

In 1939 he was arrested on a trumped-up charge of being involved in a plot against Hitler (see Georg Elser), but was later released.

During World War II Dix was conscripted into the Volkssturm. He was captured by French troops at the end of the war and released in February 1946.

Dix eventually returned to Dresden. After the war most of his paintings were religious allegories or depictions of post-war suffering, including his 1948 Ecce homo with self-likeness behind barbed wire. Otto Dix died in Singen, Germany, in 1969.

[Biography - Otto Dix - 7Ko]
Otto Dix (Umtermhaus, près de Gera, 2 décembre 1891 - Singen, 25 juillet 1969) est un peintre allemand associé aux mouvements de l'expressionnisme et à la Nouvelle Objectivité. Otto Dix est issu d'un milieu ouvrier (son père Franz Dix travaillait dans une mine de fer), mais reçoit une éducation artistique par sa mère, Pauline Louise Dix, qui s'inté...
[Biography - Otto Dix - 4Ko]
Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (* 2. Dezember 1891 in Untermhaus, heute Stadtteil von Gera † 25. Juli 1969 in Singen am Hohentwiel) war ein bedeutender deutscher Maler und Grafiker des 20. Jahrhunderts. Otto Dix’ Werk ist von stilistischer Vielfalt geprägt, bleibt jedoch in seiner künstlerischen Grundhaltung dem Realismus verpflichtet. Am bekanntesten ...
[Biography - Otto Dix - 10Ko]
Otto Dix (Gera, 2 dicembre 1891 – Singen, 25 luglio 1969) è stato un pittore tedesco, esponente di spicco della "Neue Sachlichkeit" (Nuova oggettività). Dipinse le sue opere più note durante gli anni della fragile Repubblica di Weimar, incentrate su tematiche forti e disegnate con crudezza, come la guerra e la morte al fronte, i reduci storpi nelle...
[Biography - Otto Dix - 6Ko]
Otto Dix (Gera, Alemania, 2 de diciembre de 1891 – Singen (Hohentwiel), id, 25 de julio de 1969) fue un pintor de la Nueva Objetividad y el Expresionismo alemanes. El trabajo pictórico de Otto Dix abarca una gran diversidad de estilos, aunque el gran público conoce, principalmente, sus pinturas sobre la guerra. Dibujante excepcional, Otto Dix nos h...
[Biography - Otto Dix - 7Ko]
Ви́льгельм Ге́нрих О́тто Дикс (нем. Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix [ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈhaɪnʀiç ˈɔto ˈdɪks] 2 декабря 1891, Гера, Тюрингия, Германская империя — 25 июля 1969, Зинген, Баден, ФРГ) — немецкий художник-экспрессионист и график, автор шокирующих, эмоционально напряженных картин. Ярко выраженный авангардист, в 1920-е годы был связан с дадаизмом и экспр...
[Biography - Otto Dix - 2Ko]
Otto Dix (Gera, 2 de Dezembro 1891 – Singen, 25 de Julho 1969) foi um pintor expressionista alemão. Veterano da Primeira Guerra Mundial, a sua obra é dominada pela temática antibélica. Pintou um famoso tríptico onde retrata a miséria do pós-guerra nos anos 30 e o aparecimento do jazz: Os Noctívagos (1927-1928). Filho de Franz Dix (1862-1942) e Loui...
[Biography - Otto Dix - 7Ko]
オットー・ディクス(Otto Dix, 1891年12月2日 - 1969年7月25日)はドイツの新即物主義の画家。 ゲーラ近郊のウンテルムハウス(de)に生まれる。大戦前後を通じてドレスデンにて美術を学ぶ。第一次世界大戦に従軍。戦争の悲惨さや、戦後ドイツの頽廃した社会情勢をグロテスクともいえる生々しさで表現する。また数多くの肖像画を残すがそれらも現実を徹底的に直視する写実精神をもって描かれている。 1927年ドレスデン美術アカデミー教授となるが、1933年ナチスの政権掌握後、解雇された。また1937年の頽廃芸術展(Entartete Kunst)に多くの作品が展示され、翌1938年には彼の260もの作品が公的コレクションから押収された。1945年には召集され従軍するが、翌年フランス軍の捕虜...
[Biography - Otto Dix - 2Ko]


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Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia Von Harden, Oil by Otto Dix (1891-1969, Germany)
A prototypical Neue Sachlichkeit portrait by German painter Otto Dix (1891-1969) depicting the journalist Sylvia von Harden, a habitue of Berlin's famed Romanisches Cafe. Dix's critical realism verges on a caricature of the Neue Frau in the Weimar Era, while his style of oil painting and attention to physical details serve to heighten the character's individuality in this fascinating image.
Otto Dix
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