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"St Agatha", Oil by Francisco Zurbaran (1598-1664, Spain)

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'St Agatha', Oil by Francisco Zurbaran (1598-1664, Spain)
Artwork Francisco Zurbaran , Women Francisco Zurbaran

Francisco Zurbaran - Oil

Born in Catania, Sicily, at the foot of Mount Etna, Agatha decided to remain a virgin and dedicate her life to Christ. The Prefect of Sicily, Quintian, hearing of her great beauty, tried to seduce her. Faced with her rejection, he sent her into a brothel, but even there she miraculously preserved her virgin state. She was then subjected to a singularly cruel torture. She was attached head down to a column, and her breasts twisted or torn off with a pair of pincers. The next day, St Peter visited her in her dungeon and healed her wounds. She was then brought before a court and hauled over hot coals until she died, crying out her thanks to God. Protector of Sicily, Agatha is invoked against the eruption of Etna and other volcanoes, as well as against lightning, fires and earthquakes. Her cult quickly gained the mainland and is strong in central and northern Italy (Cremona, for example) and as far as eastern France, Germany and Spain, where she protects against fire. She is also the patron saint of nursemaids, and of bell-founders (the latter apparently because of the resemblance in shape between bells and breasts). St Agatha is normally represented as a noble young girl carrying her severed breasts on a platter, like in the painting by Zurbarán.



 
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Francisco de Zurbarán (November 7, 1598 – August 27, 1664) was a Spanish painter. He is known primarily for his religious paintings depicting monks, nuns, and martyrs, and for his still-lifes. Zurbarán gained the nickname Spanish Caravaggio, owing to the forceful, realistic use of chiaroscuro in which he excelled.

Early life

He was born at Fuente de Cantos in Extremadura, the son of Luis Zurbarán, a haberdasher, and his wife, Isabel Márquez. In childhood he set about imitating objects with charcoal. In 1614 his father sent him to Seville to apprentice for three years with Pedro Díaz de Villanueva, an artist of whom very little is known.

Style

The Birth of the Virgin, c. 1625–1630, Pasadena, Norton Simon MuseumIt is unknown whether Zurbarán had the opportunity to copy the paintings of Michelangelo da Caravaggio; at any rate, he adopted Caravaggio's realistic use of chiaroscuro. The painter who may have had the greatest influence on his characteristically severe compositions was Juan Sánchez Cotán. Polychrome sculpture—which by the time of Zurbarán's apprenticeship had reached a level of sophistication in Seville that surpassed that of the local painters—provided another important stylistic model for the young artist; the work of Juan Martínez Montañés is especially close to Zurbarán's in spirit.
He painted directly from nature, and he made great use of the lay-figure in the study of draperies, in which he was particularly proficient. He had a special gift for white draperies; as a consequence, the houses of the white-robed Carthusians are abundant in his paintings. To these rigid methods, Zurbarán is said to have adhered throughout his career, which was prosperous, wholly confined to Spain, and varied by few incidents beyond those of his daily labour. His subjects were mostly severe and ascetic religious vigils, the spirit chastising the flesh into subjection, the compositions often reduced to a single figure. The style is more reserved and chastened than Caravaggio's, the tone of color often quite bluish. Exceptional effects are attained by the precisely finished foregrounds, massed out largely in light and shade.

Later life

While in Seville, Zurbarán married Leonor de Jordera, by whom he had several children. Towards 1630 he was appointed painter to Philip IV; and there is a story that on one occasion the sovereign laid his hand on the artist's shoulder, saying "Painter to the king, king of painters." After 1640 his austere, harsh, hard edged style was unfavorably compared to the sentimental religiosity of Murillo and Zurbarán's reputation declined. It was only in 1658, late in Zurbarán's life that he moved to Madrid in search of work and renewed his contact with Velázquez. Zurbarán died in poverty and obscurity.

Artistic legacy

Christ and the Virgin in the House at Nazareth, c. 1631–1640, Cleveland Museum of ArtIn 1627 he painted the great altarpiece of St. Thomas Aquinas, now in the Seville museum; it was executed for the church of the college of that saint there. This is Zurbarán's largest composition, containing figures of Christ, the Madonna, various saints, Charles V with knights, and Archbishop Deza (founder of the college) with monks and servitors, all the principal personages being more than life-size. It had been preceded by numerous pictures of the screen of St. Peter Nolasco in the cathedral.

In Santa Maria de Guadalupe he painted various large pictures, eight of which relate to the history of St. Jerome; and in the church of Saint Paul, Seville, a famous figure of the Crucified Saviour, in grisaille, creating an illusion of marble. In 1633 he finished the paintings of the high altar of the Carthusians in Jerez. In the palace of Buenretiro, Madrid are four large canvases representing the Labours of Hercules, an unusual instance of non-Christian subjects from the hand of Zurbarán. A fine example of his work is in the National Gallery, London: a whole-length, life-sized figure of a kneeling Franciscan holding a skull. His principal scholars were Bernabe de Ayala and the brothers Polanco (painters).

[Biography - Francisco Zurbaran - 6Ko]
Francisco de Zurbarán (07 de novembro de 1598 - 27 agosto de 1664) foi um pintor espanhol. Ele é conhecido principalmente por suas pinturas religiosas retratando monges, freiras e mártires, e por sua naturezas-mortas. Zurbarán ganhou o apelido espanhol Caravaggio, devido ao uso, forte realista do claro-escuro em que se destacou. Primeiros anos de v...
[Biography - Francisco Zurbaran - 6Ko]
Франсиско де Сурбарана (7 ноября 1598 - 27 августа 1664) был испанский художник. Он известен в первую очередь для его религиозные картины, изображающие монахов, монахинь и мучеников, и за его натюрморты. Сурбарана получил прозвище испанской Караваджо, из-за силового, реалистичные использование светотени, в которых он преуспел. Ранняя жизнь Он родил...
[Biography - Francisco Zurbaran - 5Ko]
弗朗西斯科Zurbarán(1598年11月7日 - 1664年8月27日)是西班牙画家。他被称为主要是为他的宗教画,描绘了和尚,尼姑,和烈士,并为他仍然半衰期。 Zurbarán获得绰号西班牙卡拉瓦乔,由于有力,明暗对比的现实中,他表现出色的使用。 早期的生活 他出生在富恩特的诗章,埃斯特雷马杜拉的儿子路易斯Zurbarán,haberdasher,和他的妻子,伊莎贝尔马尔克斯。在童年时代,他开始模仿用木炭对象。 1614年父亲送他到塞维利亚三年学徒佩德罗迪亚斯 - 维拉纽瓦,其中很少有人知道的艺术家。 风格 美属维尔京角的诞生1625-1630,帕萨迪纳,诺顿西蒙MuseumIt是未知的,是否Zurbarán有机会复制米开朗基罗DA卡拉瓦乔的画作 无论如何,他采用了卡拉瓦乔的明暗对比的现...
[Biography - Francisco Zurbaran - 3Ko]
フランシスコデスルバラン(1598年11月7日 - 1664年8月27日)はスペインの画家。彼は主に僧侶、尼僧、そして殉教者を描いた彼の宗教画のため、と彼はまだ、静物画で知られています。スルバランは、彼が得意とした明暗法の強制的な、現実的な使用に起因ニックネームスペインカラヴァッジョを、得た。 初期の人生 彼は、エストレマドゥーラのフエンテデカントス、ルイススルバラン、雑貨小間物商、そして彼の妻、イザベルマルケスの息子で生まれた。小児期に彼は木炭でオブジェクトを模倣し始めました。 1614年に彼の父はペドロディアスデビリャヌエバ、ほとんど知られている人のアーティストとの三年間弟子にセビリアに彼を送った。 スタイルの ヴァージン、cの誕生1625-1630、パサディナ、ノートンサイモンMuse...
[Biography - Francisco Zurbaran - 3Ko]

 

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"St Agatha", Oil by Francisco Zurbaran (1598-1664, Spain)
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Born in Catania, Sicily, at the foot of Mount Etna, Agatha decided to remain a virgin and dedicate her life to Christ. The Prefect of Sicily, Quintian, hearing of her great beauty, tried to seduce her. Faced with her rejection, he sent her into a brothel, but even there she miraculously preserved her virgin state. She was then subjected to a singularly cruel torture. She was attached head down to a column, and her breasts twisted or torn off with a pair of pincers. The next day, St Peter visited her in her dungeon and healed her wounds. She was then brought before a court and hauled over hot coals until she died, crying out her thanks to God. Protector of Sicily, Agatha is invoked against the eruption of Etna and other volcanoes, as well as against lightning, fires and earthquakes. Her cult quickly gained the mainland and is strong in central and northern Italy (Cremona, for example) and as far as eastern France, Germany and Spain, where she protects against fire. She is also the patron saint of nursemaids, and of bell-founders (the latter apparently because of the resemblance in shape between bells and breasts). St Agatha is normally represented as a noble young girl carrying her severed breasts on a platter, like in the painting by Zurbarán.
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