|Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c. 1386 – December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian artist and sculptor from Florence. He is, in part, known for his work in basso rilievo, a form of shallow relief sculpture that, in Donatello's case, incorporated significant 15th-century developments in perspectival illusionism.|
Statue of St. John the Baptist in the Duomo di SienaDonatello was the son of Niccolo di Betto Bardi, who was a member of the Florentine Wool Combers Guild, and was born in Florence, most likely in 1386. Donatello was educated in the house of the Martelli family. He apparently received his early artistic training in a goldsmith's workshop, and then worked briefly in the studio of Lorenzo Ghiberti.
While undertaking study and excavations with Filippo Brunelleschi in Rome (1404–1407), work that gained the two men the reputation of treasure seekers, Donatello made a living by working at goldsmiths' shops. Their Roman sojourn was decisive for the entire development of Italian art in the 15th century, for it was during this period that Brunelleschi undertook his measurements of the Pantheon dome and of other Roman buildings. Brunelleschi's buildings and Donatello's sculptures are both considered supreme expressions of the spirit of this era in architecture and sculpture, and they exercised a potent influence upon the painters of the age.
Work in Florence
In Florence, Donatello assisted Lorenzo Ghiberti with the statues of prophets for the north door of the Florence Baptistery, for which he received payment in November 1406 and early 1408. In 1409–1411 he executed the colossal seated figure of Saint John the Evangelist, which until 1588 occupied a niche of the old cathedral facade, and is now placed in a dark chapel of the Duomo. This work marks a decisive step forward from late Gothic Mannerism in the search for naturalism and the rendering of human feelings. The face, the shoulders and the bust are still idealized, while the hands and the fold of cloth over the legs are more realistic.
Tomb of Antipope John XXIII in Florence's BaptisteryIn 1411–1413 Donatello worked on a statue of St. Mark for the church of Orsanmichele. In 1417 he completed the St. George for the Confraternity of the Cuirass-makers. The elegant St. George and the Dragon relief on the statue's base, executed in schiacciato (also known as bas-relief or basso rilievo) is one of the first examples of central-point perspective in sculpture.
From 1423 is the St. Louis of Toulouse, now in the Museum of the Basilica di Santa Croce. Donatello had also sculpted a tabernacle for this work, but it was sold in 1460 to house the Incredulity of St. Thomas by Verrocchio.
Between 1415 and 1426, Donatello created five statues for the campanile of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, also known as the Duomo. These works are the Beardless Prophet; Bearded Prophet (both from 1415); the Sacrifice of Isaac (1421); Habbakuk (1423–1425); and Jeremiah (1423–1426); which follow the classical models for orators and are characterized by strong portrait details. From the late teens is the Pazzi Madonna relief in Berlin. In 1425, he executed the notable Crucifix for Santa Croce; this work portrays Christ in a moment of the agony, eyes and mouth partially opened, the body contracted in an ungraceful posture.
Between 1425–1427, Donatello collaborated with Michelozzo on the funerary monument of the Antipope John XXIII for the Battistero in Florence. Surely by Donatello is the recumbent bronze figure of the deceased, under a shell. In 1427, he completed in Pisa a marble panel for the funerary monument of Cardinal Rainaldo Brancacci at the church of Sant'Angelo a Nilo in Naples. In the same period, he executed the relief of the Feast of Herod and the statues of Faith and Hope for the Baptstery of San Giovanni in Siena. The relief is mostly in stiacciato, while the foreground figures are done in bas-relief.
Major commissions in Florence
David at Bargello Museum, FlorenceAround 1430, Cosimo de' Medici, the foremost art patron of his era, commissioned from Donatello the bronze David (now in the Bargello) for the court of his Palazzo Medici. This is now Donatello's most famous work. At the time of its creation, it was the first known free-standing nude statue produced since ancient times. Conceived fully in the round, independent of any architectural surroundings, and largely representing an allegory of the civic virtues triumphing over brutality and irrationality, it was the first major work of Renaissance sculpture. Also from this period is the disquietingly small Love-Atys, housed in the Bargello.
Statue of St. George in Orsanmichele, FlorenceWhen Cosimo was exiled from Florence, Donatello went to Rome, remaining until 1433. The two works that testify to his presence in this city, the Tomb of Giovanni Crivelli at Santa Maria in Aracoeli, and the Ciborium at St. Peter's Basilica, bear a strong stamp of classical influence.
Donatello's return to Florence almost coincided with Cosimo's. In May of 1434, he signed a contract for the marble pulpit on the facade of Prato cathedral, the last project executed in collaboration with Michelozzo. This work, a passionate, pagan, rhythmically-conceived bacchanalian dance of half-nude putti, was the forerunner of the great Cantoria, or singing tribune, at the Duomo in Florence on which Donatello worked intermittently from 1433 to 1440 and was inspired by ancient sarcophagi and Byzantine ivory chests. In 1435, he executed the Annunciation for the Cavalcanti altar in Santa Croce, inspired by 14th century iconography, and in 1437–1443, he worked in the Old Sacristy of the San Lorenzo in Florence, on two doors and lunettes portraying saints, as well as eight stucco tondoes. From 1438 is the wooden statue of St. John the Evangelist for Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice. Around 1440, he executed a bust of a Young Man with a Cameo now in the Bargello, the first example of a lay bust portrait since the classical era.
Donatello did not marry, choosing instead to live with other artists and his many young workshop assistants. According to some historians, Donatello made no secret of his homosexuality, and his behaviour was tolerated by his friends; certainly Cosimo is known to have played a part in patching up at least one lover's quarrel between Donatello and one of his young assistants. Frequently his violent outbursts would result from passionate entanglements — when one of his assistants ran away, Donatello is said to have chased him as far as Ferrara with the intention of killing him. However, little detail is known with certainty about his private life. No accusation against him has been found in the Florentine archives, which albeit during his lifetime are very incomplete. Donatello's bronze life-sized David that he produced for Cosimo was one of the most overtly homosexual works of its era, its sensuous nudity emphasised by the young David's calf-length ornamented leather boots and curly tresses.
Donatello's equestrian statue of Gattamelata at PaduaIn 1443, Donatello was called to Padua by the heirs of the famous condottiero Erasmo da Narni, who had died that year. Completed in 1450 and placed in the square facing the Basilica of St. Anthony, his equestrian statue of Erasmo (better known as the Gattamelata, or "Honey-Cat") was the first example of such a monument since ancient times. (Other equestrian statues, from the 14th century, had not been executed in bronze and had been placed over tombs rather than erected independently, in a public place.) This work became the prototype for other equestrian monuments executed in Italy and Europe in the following centuries.
For the Basilica of St. Anthony, Donatello created, most famously, the bronze Crucifix of 1444–7 and additional statues for the choir, including a Madonna with Child and six saints, constituting a Holy Conversation, which is no longer visible since the renovation by Camillo Boito in 1895. The Madonna with Child portrays the Child being displayed to the faithful, on a throne flanked by two sphinxes, allegorical figures of knowledge. On the throne's back is a relief of Adam and Eve. During this period — 1446–50 — Donatello also executed four extremely important reliefs with scenes from the life of St. Anthony for the high altar.
Last years in Florence
Donatello returned to Florence in 1453. From 1455 to 1460, dates the Judith and Holofernes, begun for the Duomo di Siena but later acquired by the Medici. Until 1461, Donatello remained in Siena, where he created a St. John the Baptist, also for the Duomo, and models for its gates, now lost.
For his last commission in Florence, Donatello produced reliefs for the bronze pulpits in the church of San Lorenzo, with help from students Bartolomeo Bellano and Bertoldo di Giovanni. Donatello provided the general design and personally executed the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence and the Deposition from the Cross; he worked on the reliefs of Christ before Pilate and Christ before Caiphus, with Bellano. This work is characterized by an intense, free, indeed sketchy and suggestively unfinished – in Italian a non-finito – technique that heightens the dramatic effect of the scenes and emphasizes their spiritual intensity. Donatello died in Florence in 1466 and was buried in the Basilica of San Lorenzo, next to Cosimo de' Medici the Elder.
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, dit Donatello (Florence, v. 1386 - Florence, 13 décembre 1466), est un sculpteur italien, un des cinq rénovateurs de l'art italien avec Masaccio, Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Luca Della Robbia. Biographie courte Donatello naquit dans une famille modeste. Son père est cardeur de laine. Dans sa première jeunesse, il étudi...|
Donatello, eigentlich Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (* um 1386 in Florenz &dagger am 13. Dezember 1466 in Florenz) war ein italienischer Bildhauer. Der Name Donatello ist die Verkleinerungsform seines Vornamens Donato. Leben Donatello wurde in Florenz als Sohn des Wollkämmers Niccolò di Betto Bardi geboren. Sein Name wird 1401 zum ersten Mal a...|
Donatello, vero nome Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (Firenze, 1386 - Firenze, 13 dicembre 1466), è stato uno scultore, orafo e disegnatore italiano. Con la sua lunghissima carriera fu uno dei tre padri del Rinascimento fiorentino, assieme a Filippo Brunelleschi e Masaccio, oltre che uno dei più celebrati scultori di tutti i tempi. Diede un contri...|
Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi) (Florencia, Italia, 1386 - ibídem, 13 de diciembre de 1466) fue un famoso artista y escultor italiano de principios del Renacimiento. Junto con Leon Battista Alberti, Brunelleschi y Masaccio, fue uno de los creadores del estilo renacentista. Donatello destacó en una fuerza innovadora en el campo de la es...|
Донателло (Донато ди Никколо ди Бетто Барди, c. 1386 - 13 декабря 1466) был известным раннего Возрождения итальянский художник и скульптор из Флоренции. Он, в частности, известный по своей работе в бас rilievo, формы мелкой скульптуры облегчение, что, в случае, Донателло, включены значительные 15-го века развитие перспективного иллюзионизма. Ранняя...|
多纳泰罗（多纳托DI Niccolò DI别当巴尔迪 C. 1386 - 12月13日，1466）是著名的早期文艺复兴时期的意大利艺术家和雕塑家从佛罗伦萨。他的一部分，是在著名的他的工作在巴索rilievo，浅浮雕的形式，在多纳泰罗的情况下，成立了显著的15世纪的发展透视illusionism。 早期的生活 施洗者圣约翰大教堂DI SienaDonatello像Niccolo DI别当巴尔迪，谁是佛罗伦萨羊毛精梳机协会成员的儿子，出生于1386年在佛罗伦萨，最有可能的。多纳泰罗曾就读于马尔泰利家庭的房子。他显然他早在金车间的艺术培训，然后简要地洛伦佐吉贝尔蒂工作室工作。 虽然承诺菲利波布鲁内莱斯基（一四零四年至1407年），在罗马的工作，取得了两人的声誉寻宝的研究和发掘，多纳泰罗在金饰店工...|
Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, c. 1386 - 13 dezembro de 1466) foi um famoso artista renascentista e escultor italiano de Florença. Ele é, em parte, conhecido por seu trabalho no basso rilievo, uma forma de escultura em relevo superficial que, em caso de Donatello, incorporou significativos do século 15 evolução ilusionismo perspectivi...|
ドナテッロ（ナートディニコロディBettoバルディ、C. 1386 - 1466年12月13日）はフィレンツェの有名な初期のルネサンスイタリアの芸術家および彫刻家だった。彼は、一部では、バッソ浮き彫り、ドナテッロの場合には、遠近だまし絵の重要な15世紀の発展を取り入れ、浅いレリーフ彫刻の形で彼の仕事のために知られています。 初期の人生 ドゥオーモディSienaDonatelloの洗礼者聖ヨハネの像は1386年にフィレンツェのウールCombersのギルドのメンバーだった、とフィレンツェで生まれた、最も可能性の高いニッコロディBettoバルディの息子だった。ドナテッロはマルテッリの家族の家で教育を受けた。彼は明らかに金細工の工房で、彼の初期の芸術的訓練を受け、その後、ロレンツォギベルティの工房で...||